In the Name of Allah, Merciful and Compassionate.

May Allah send blessings and salutations
to our
master Muhammad and to his Family and Companions,

         PRAISE BE TO ALLAH, the One Who Endows and Gives Bounty, Who establishes in every time and place those who guide His creatures to the True and Worshipped Sovereign, the One Who chooses whomsoever He wills to bring into His Prèsence by means of people who are near Him and love Him, all this by His Providence.

          And may the most excellent of blessings and salutations of peace be upon the Noblest of Création, the one brought forth as a Mercy to all worlds, the Seal of the Prophets and Messengers, and beloved friend of the Lord of the Worlds, our master and guardian Muhammad, and upon his pure family and noble Companions and those who follow them in excellence, until the Judgement Day .


          These are the words of  ‘Abd al-Kebîr al- Belghîtî, a needy servant of his Mighty Lord, may Allah be with him in this world and the Next. Amen! My father, Shaykh Mûlay Hâshim al-Belghîtî,[1] may Allah keep him in His protection and bless him in his years, has given me permission to write a biography of our Shaykh, Sîdî Muhammad ibn al-Habîb, the perfected gnostic and founder of our order, the  Darqâwiyya Shâdhiliyya. So i have followed his instructions, and sought the help of Allah, and He has granted me the means by which it was easy to gather and Write of this blessed life. May Allah reward our Shaykh for these efforts, and sanctify his soul, for he was the means by which this breeze of the spirit[2] has come about. I have called it Ithâf al-Labîb bi tarjamati Shaykh Sîdî Muhammad iBn al-Habîb (A Gift to Hearts through the Life of the Shaykh Sîdî Muhammad ibn al-Habîb), may Allah Most High make this work solely for His Noble Contenence. Amen!

              He was the gnostic and guide to Allah by His permission, the imam and model for wayfarers, the bearer of the banner of the tariqah, the one who combined within him the Revealed Law and Inner Truth (al-shar‘a wa-l-haqiqa), the one through whom Divine Help flows (al-ghayth) and who has arrived at the Presence of His Lord, the perfected master, Abu Abd Allâh, Sîdî Muhammad ibn al-Habîb, al-Amghârî, al-Idrîsî. He was Hassanî by descent, Malikî in the school he followed, Shâdhilî in his spiritual path and affiliation, and Muhammadî in both the source from which he drank and the teachings he gave. He was  one of the foremost of the learned who practice what they know, among the greatest and most profound of the masters and realized imams, a person of sublime spiritual allusions and lofty aspiration, the sun of his age in the heaven of sanctity and gnosis, granted acceptance, and esteemed among creatures, such that both the elect and the generality bore witness to his sanctity.


He was born  in Fes in the year 1290/1871 or thereabouts, but his family was originally from Marrakesh and related to Mûlay ‘Abd Allâh Amghâr who is buried in Tameslûht[3]It was his father, a man of goodness and piety, who migrated to Fes, settled there, and brought him up in an ambiance of virtue and honor.
Around the year 1295/1876, he placed him in a Quranic school near the Abu Ra’ûs Bridge in the Sharâbiliyyin quarter of Fes, where he memorized the Noble Qur’ân in a brief period time under the instruction of the fiqîh[4] Sîdî ibn al-Hâshimî al-Sinhâjî, may Allah be merciful to him. He was also taught by the pious fiqîh Sîdî Ahmad al-Filâlî, at the Quranic school of Qasba al-Nawwâr.            It was to this latter school that there came one day one of Allah’s saints who has been granted intuition and he began speaking to the fiqîh, pointing to each of the students, while looking at them with the gift of prescience, saying, ” This one is going to be a butcher, and this one is going to be a tailor.. “, and so forth, unveiling for each student what skill he would have in the future, until he came to our master, and said, “And this one will be among the learned who practice what they know, a person of scruples, an invoker of Allah, a master who will teach disciples.”

         Indeed, from the time of his childhood he was beloved to those scholars who practice what they know, and to the saintly friends of Allah Most High. He himself said:

              “Among the blessings of Allah to me was the great number of gnostics whom I was able to meet. From some of them I benefitted [only] from their looking upon me and making a supplication for me; from some of them I benefitted by their teachings, by putting into practice the advice they gave me; and by imitating their manner; and some of them I took as teachers in the Way and learned their litanies.

           “Among those from whom I benefitted by their seeing me and making supplication for me was Shaykh Sîdî Muhammad al-Ghiyâtî. The way I came to meet him was through an Alawî Sharîf named Mûlay Alî who used to give the Call to Prayer in the Qasba al-Nawwâr neighborhood. He loved [Sîdî Muhammad] greatly for the sake of Allah and encougaged me to visit him, and so I one day I went with him, When we arrived at [Sîdî Muhammad’s] door, Mûlay Ali knocked lightly and [Sîdî Muhammad himself] came to the door, opened it, and brought Mûlay Alî alone into his house. Then the Sharif told him about me and that I had come to visit him only for the love of Allah, and after hearing this, he brought me into his house as well I entered and greeted him and kissed his hand and he began to look at me [with such intensity] that I had to lower my gaze in shame and awe of his majesty. Then he asked me about what I was doing, and I told him that I had been busy learning the Qur’ân and that now, praise be to Allah, I had memorized it and was ready to undertake the study of the religious sciences. He made a supplication for my good and gave me permission to recite the formula hasbuna-l-Lâhu wa ni‘ma-l-wakîl [5] a certain number of times. This saint was one of those who rarely left their houses. He passed away, may Allah have mercy upon him, in 1318 (1900),”

            The Shaykh first learned religious knowledge in the ‘Abu Al- Junûd mosque[6]  …. and following that, in the year 1300/1881, he was accepted to study at the Qarawîyin Mosque where he would drink from océans of knowledge and quench his thirst. He learned the fundamental texts of ail aspects of religious studies with the greatest of the masters, and studied with diligence and attentive-ness….[7]

             [One of his later studies of formal knowledge] was of the commentary on al-Bukhârî by Qastalânî[8] which he read with the sharîf, the great scholar, and master of hadïth, Sîdî ‘Abdallah al-Badrâwî. Our Shaykh later spoke of this scholar thusly:

            “Among the grâces given to me by Allah was the chance to be with the great and noble scholar and hâfîz who was the Shaykh of the assembly of his day, our master al-Badrâwî.
He was the leader of the Idrîssî Shurafâ [9] and the way I came to meet him was through my uncle, Sîdî Siddîq. This latter
was among those who sat with the Shaykh al-Badrâwî and served him, and he would ask after me, saying, Always watch over your brother’s son, Sîdî Muhammad ibn al-Habîb, for h is going to be someone of great importance.’ My uncle then invited me to come along with him to visit Shaykh al-Badrâwî, and so one day I went to him at the Shaykh’s home in Derb Bihâj, in the Tal‘a quarter of Fes. The moment he saw me, he began welcoming me (into his home) again and again, and seated me near to him, and I kissed his hand. Then he asked me about the studies I was doing at the Qarawiyyin. i told him about those and he was happy to hear about them. He made a supplication that all goodness should come to me, and invited me to the lessons he gave in the mornings in which he was teaching the summary of Shaykh al-Khalîl…, which I did and I was granted a great faculty for memorization and understanding by his blessing. He would recite one Sûra, and present the varions commentaries on it, and would not omit the least détail.” He also learned from many other great scholars and was beloved by all his teachers for they saw his exceptional qualifies, perfect behavior, and uprightness, and when he completed his studies in the Qarawiyyin in the year 1312/1891, each of his teachers gave him an ijâza[10] in the science he had studied with him.


           After (having received these permissions to teach) he volun-teered to give lessons in al Murshid al-Mu‘în, the summary of al-Khalîl, al-Muwatta’ of imâm Mâlik, al-Sanûsiyya[11] and Quranic commentary in the mosque of Qasba al Nawwâr, purely for the sake of Allah. Later, he moved (his lessons) to the Qarawiyyin Mosque where a great number of people would attend and benefit from them, including the political leader, ‘Allal al-Fâsî, the scholar Muhammad al-Mukhtâr al-Sûsî, the scholar Sîdî Muhammad al-Ghâzî, the judge, Sîdî Muhammad ben Qaddûr, the jurist and scholar, Sîdî ‘Abd al-Qâdîr al-Saqalî, the judge Mûlay Idrîs ben ‘Alî, the judge Sîdî al Siddîq al-Fâsî, the scholar, Ibn ‘Abd Allah, head of the al-Makhfiyya School, and scores of others who received religions knowledge through him.


              He loved reading books by the great sufî masters, books such as Ihya’ ‘ulûm al-Dîn, the Hikam of Ibn ‘Atâ’Allah, books of Tabaqât (biographies), spiritual counsel, and other such works, always with an aspiration towards Allah Most High and nothing else, During this same period, he began praying that he could meet someone who would direct him to Allah. He said, “When i began studying religions knowledge, Allah Most High helped me so that I was able to acquire a great amount of knowledge in a short time. In my free moments, I would study books of religions exhortation among which were those containing reminders of death and its tribulations, directed towards hearts which had become hard. The fear of death, in fact, became dominant in my heart such that I slept only a little of the night and turned totally towards preparing myself for it. Each night I would offer superogatory Prayers of thirteen bowings in which I would recite five ahzâb of the Qur’ân[12] in a measured and reflective style. Upon finishing those, i would turn to invocation and supplication with humility until the time of the pre-dawn Prayer (subh) was near, at which time i would usually go to the mosque to offer it (with others), but sometimes i would offer it (in my house) with my family, and then i would occupy myself with the things I had to do.”

            Thus were his moments filled with the remembrance of Allah and the training of his soul in hopes that Allah would grant him someone who would guide him to the intimate knowledge (ma‘rifa) of his Lord, be He glorifed and exalted. He continues :

            “Then did Allah inspire me to search for someone from among the people of the heart, the people of gnosis, who would take my hand and direct my heart to the Station of Excellence (al-ihsân), which comprises both vigilance towards Allah as well as the permanent awareness of His Presence. This is what was conveyed in the hadîth Jibrîl, in the collections of both al-Buhkârî and Muslim, when (the angel Gabriel) asked the Prophet  the meaning of Excellence (al-ihsân), he answered, ‘It is that you worship Allah as if you saw Him, and if you do not see Him, yet He sees you; ” But without a doubt, no one who yearns to experience (the Divine) may reach this Station except with a gnostic teacher who knows Allah. In fact, this is the case for any science: the seeker attains it only by the guidance of some one who knows it.”

              The first person from whom our Shaykh benefitted at the beginning of the path was the master and gnostic, effaced in the love of the saints, Muhammad Lah  who was at the time the head of the tanners’ guild of Fes. In his own words, the way he came to meet him was this:

“The study of formal religious knowledge began to weigh heavily upon me, while worship and dévotion to Allah be-came increasingly easier, and so i started to ask myself, If the purpose of (exoteric) knowledge is practice, and i have already learned the amount of knowledge obligatory upon me (for practice), of what use is it for me to learn more? i am not going to be a mufti[13] or a judge. A great state of confusion came upon me (concerning this) and I turned in my need to Allah and asked Him to send me someone who could guide me to what was right.

          “It was during this period of confusion that I was passing through Zaqâq al-Hajar in Fes, and my vision happened to fall upon a man in the road, and above his head, I saw a light rising heavenward, so far up that I was sure everyone else could see it too. As I followed him, however, I saw that no one else was aware of this light. Then I knew that Allah Most High had let me glimpse something of (this saint’s) spécial nature in order that I might benefit from him, even while He had veiled it from other people, and my heart became set on meeting him. As it turned out, my uncle Sîdî al-Siddîq was a dear friend of (this person). So I went to him and told him about what Allah had allowed me to see and he said, “That is a man to whom Allah has granted a spiritual opening, someone who has spent time in the company of the elect of the Way, and who has served them with fervor and sincerity, intention and love, and then attained great light and goodness.” I asked my uncle to introduce me to him so that I could ask him about my state and the confusion I was in. My uncle helped me in this and set up a meeting for noon the next day at his house in the neighborhood of Sîdî ‘Abd al-Qâdir al-Fâsî. When the appointed time came, I went to the house, but did not find the man. I asked my uncle, “Where is he?” and he answered, “He will be here without fail.” Then my uncle went out to look for him and found that he had already arrived at the door. When he entered, (I heard him) say to my uncle, “O Sîdî Siddîq, will we sit in the lower part of the house or the upper?” My uncle said, “Let’s sit in the upper part.” He said to him, “To get to the upper level, there must be a ladder. Anyone who wants to ascend without a ladder will never succeed!” This was the first spiritual allusion I heard from him and knew (then) that I was involved with an ascent that had to be made correctly, one step after the other, and with the help of someone who had been granted a spiritual opening and light. When he reached the room where I was awaiting him, I stood with great cour-tesy and respect and greeted him, then he sat down near me and turned to me with his full attention.”

            Our master remained a companion of Sîdî Muhammad Lah for five years. He said, “I received teachings from a large number of gnostics. The first of them who awakened in me respect and vénération, for the sufis and the study of their books was Sîdî Muhammad Lah who was the head of the tanners’ guild in Fes.
           He would never sit with us without remembering Allah, giving spiritual instruction, and speaking respectfully about the people of the Way, the learned, the shaykhs, and all in whose hands Allah had entrusted the affairs of the Muslims, and he would pray for their welfare. He would say to us, “Think deeply about this verse; The Day when neither wealth nor children will benefit; only the one who cornes to Allah with a heart that is pure and sound [2.6:88].

              “There were five of us who would get together with this saintly person until there came to us from Ighrïs Mûlay Sa‘id al-Belghîtî with a message from Sîdî Larbi al-Hawârî , and we found his state to be of the holy people effaced in Allah, and it was from him that we were received into the Tarîqa Badawiyya Darqawiyya. He said to me, ‘Hear from me these glad tidings; I bring you a message from our Shaykh, the gnostic Sîdî al-‘Arbî al-Hawârî, who said to me, ‘Go to Fes and ask where the Qasba al-Nawwâr is. When you get there, ask for Sîdî Muhammad bin al-Habîb, give him my greetings, and convey to him our noble litany with our permission. And give him the good news that the leadership of our Tarîqa will pass to him and that through him Allah Most High will give it new life.’ He sat with us for an entire year, and in this group we read aloud and with commentary a number of the books of Sufism, including, Abu Tâlib al-Makkî’s Qût al-qulub and Imâm al Ghazâlî’s Ihya’, al-Shuhrawardî’s ‘Awârif al Ma‘ârif, the commentary on the Hikam of Ibn ‘Atâ’Allâh, and the books of the gnostic, ‘Abd al-Wahhâb al-Sha‘rânî, including al-Tabaqât, al-‘Uhud al-Muhammadiyya, and Majhûd al-Mashâyikh, We also read the Wisâyâ of the Shaykh al-Akbar, Sîdî Ibn “Arabî al-Hâtimî, and found in it everything a student needs to know easily and quickly about the Station of Excellence (al-ihsân), and all of it based on the Book and the Sunna.” Before meeting lay Sa‘îd al-Belghitî, the Shaykh’s state was predominantly one of rigor. No one was able to be in his Company or sit with him for long, and it had gotten to the point where if he passed through the quarter where he lived, no one would venture to greet him or wish to encounter him because of their extreme awe of him, and he himself was not able to mix with people. The situation remained like this until he met that saintly man (Mûlay Sa‘îd), who continued to instruct him until that state was finally replaced by one that was milder and he could return to being with people and they with him. [Later], when the Shaykh would mention Mûlay Sa‘îd, he would say, praising his practice and exalted station, “By Allah, all that we have is through his excellence.”

         [The Shaykh continues:] “Following this, Shaykh Mâ’ al‘Aynayn came to us in Fes al-Jadîd, was extremely happy to meet me, and gave me permission to teach all the books he had authored in hadîth, and sufism.[14] A tremendous blessing came to me by way of him and he gave me permission to recite and convey all the portions,[15] invocations of Divine Names, and litanies to whomsoever sought them. Similarly, I met with his successor and the heir to his spiritual secret, Sîdî Ahmad al-Shams with whom I had a great connection of hearts. He used to visit me frequently and together we would study books of hadîth, Tafsîr, and sufism. I helped him with that for nearly ten years until he migrated to Madina Munawara and there he passed away.” When Sîdî Muhammad b. ‘Alî  appeared as the new Shaykh of the Târiqa, our Shaykh wrote to him. to renew his allegiance to the Tarîqa through him. Recounting this, he said:

          “He wrote me back and asked me to corne to Marrakech, so I complied with his wishes and travelled there. When I came into where he was  ; he was overjoyed to see me and said, ‘When you came to me, the whole Tarîqa came to me. And he also said, among many words of good tidings too long to mention, “For me, your place in this order is like the place of Ibn ‘Atâ’ Allah in the Shadhiliyya. Just as Allah Most High gave new life to that order through Ibn ‘Atâ’ Allah, He will — Allah willing — give new life to this blessed order through you”. ‘I renewed my allegiance to the Tarîqa through him and then went travelling with him. During that time more than one hundred fuqarâ’ accompanied us and he bade me give them instruction in the fundamentals of their religion, so I would teach them from al-Mûrshid al-Mu‘în first, then follow it with a book on sufism that I was given by one of the fuqarâ’ called al-Munâjât al-kubrâ by Sîdî Ahmad al-Badawî.[16] This book contains all that is needed for a seeker to arrive at the Station of Excellence (al-ihsân) and among the things the author  says is that each of Allah’s saints enters through the door which Allah opens for him. As for me, I have entered through the door of honoring Allah’s création, and my evidence for this is the saying of Allah Most High, Whosoever honors Allah’s sacred things, that is good for him in the sight of Lord. [22:30], And so I undertook to honor the People of the House, such that if I saw one of the shurafâ’, I would honor that person as if I were seeing the Prophet . Then, when I would see one of the learned, I would honor him in my heart such that the light which he had received from the Prophet  would envelop me. Then I came to honor all Muslims inasmuch as they are the humble servants of Allah Most High, and would see myself as the lowest in any gathering, and then I came to honor all création as a sign of Divine knowledge, the effect of His will, the manifestation of His Power, and the artistry of His Wisdom, may He be glorifed and exalted.” This is how the gnostics venerate Allah [in création].

         “I continued to travel [with my Shaykh] for about two months and when we got to the land of the Sarâghnâ tribe[17],  they welcomed the Shaykh and the brethren with joy. Then he instructed me to return to Fes as his représentative guiding to Allah, transmitted to me the Unique Name, and instructed me to be abundant in its invocation following the method that had been transmitted to him by his master, Sîdî Ahmad al-Badawî. This method involves [invoking the Name] with the consciousness of what is expressed in the words of Ibn ‘Atâ’ Allâh in the Hikamt ‘Had it not been for His manifestation in created beings, eyesight would not have perceived them.[18] There is no doubt that nothing is manifested in création except what this Name contains of the knowledge of Allah’s Essence, Attributes, Names, and the Acts in which the traces of the Names and Attributes appear. Shaykh Abu’l-Mawâhib al-Shâdhilî said, ‘There is nothing in the Cosmos except what has been preceded by [Divine] Knowledge, specified hy Will, manifested by Power, and ordered by Wisdom,” And Ibn ‘Atâ’ Allâh says in another of his aphorisms, ‘The Cosmos is all darkness. It is illumined only by the manifestation of God in it, whosever sees the Cosmos and does not contemplate Him in it or by it or before it or after it is in need of light and is veiled from the sun of gnosis by the clouds of created things.[19]

           So I invoked this Name abundantly with this consciousness and by its blessing I attained lights in my heart and a sense of vigilance and awareness of Allah, both of which comprise the Station of Excellence (maqâm al-ihsân), ‘That you worship Allah as if you saw Him, for if you do not see Him, yet He sees you…’ Sufism, then, is founded on attaining the science
of ihsân, and just as there must be a guide to explain the rules and terminology of any science, so must there be a guide for this one. That is what impelled me to seek such a guide.”

              Then our Shaykh met the gnostic Sîdî ‘Abd al-Rahmân bin Sâlih, and they would remind one other about the realization of servanthood (‘ubudiyya) for Allah Most High. The essence of what this Shaykh said was that the spiritual opening comes quickly to sincere fuqarâ’ who realize the true attributes of their State : ignorance, weakness, and neediness. He who realizes his ignorance, Allah will sustain with bénéficiai knowledge, [and he who realizes his weakness, Allah will sustain by His Strength], and so forth with the other attributes: if you realize your true attribute, Allah will sustain you with His Attribute.”


            Our Shaykh said: “When Shaykh Sîdî Muhammad bin ‘Alî passed away and permission passed to me, I saw myself as lowly and undeserving of that station until four masters came to me (in dreams)- Sîdî Muhammad bin ‘Ali, Sîdî al-‘Arabî bin al-Huwwârî, Sîdî Muhammad al-‘Arabî, and Sîdî Ahmad al-Badawî (may Allah be well-pleased with them all) – and told me to go out to people and guide them to the True Sovereign. They also said to me, “The water you drank from us is the freshest and sweetest there is. Stretch forth your hand to the east and the west and fear no one.
           Then there came to me permission from Mustafâ , and after that I had no choice but to go out to people as a teacher. So – by Allah and for Allah – I did so, saying as Ibn ‘Atâ’Allâh had said in the words of the Hikam :”My God! You have commanded me to return to created things, so return me to them with the raiment of lights and guidance of inner vision, so that I may return from them to You just as I entered Your Presence from them with my innermost being protected from looking at them and my fervor raised above dependence upon them. Verily You have Power over all things.” [20]“People began coming to me and I would remind them, guide them, and give them counsel to the degree of their orientation and readiness, without personal goals, and we would gather with our brethren for invocation and teaching from the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger At this time, our Shaykh had been in the company of Sîdî Muhammad ben ‘Alî for four years.


                  In the year 1330/1911 the Shaykh founded the blessed Habîbiyya Darqâwiyya Shâdhiliyya order. His sun arose, the time was right, and the banner of the Way was raised before him. Allah gave new life to the Way through him after it had faded, and its lights again shone forth. The servants of Allah benefitted through him and came to him from all parts of the land, and teachings and mysteries arose by way of him. He began calling people to Allah Most High, to hold fast to His Book and the Sunna of His Messenger  and to abandon heretical innovation. He writes:

              “By Allah – and again, by Allah! – we have not passed through a town or village or countryside except that its people have born witness to having received providential aid and new life flowing to their hearts, this being the mystery of permission (idhn). And no faqîr has sat with us – may praise be to Allah! – except that he has received knowledge that he had not previously possessed along with a deeper sense of humility and lowliness. And no aspirant has sat with us except that his fervor has been strengthened and his aspiration raised.
             And no Shaykh among the masters of this time has corne to us except that his direct experience of the divine (dhawq) has been increased and he has benefitted by something from us that he did not have before. All of that is by the mystery and blessing of permission.

How many a wayfarer have we but  looked upon

Who then rose to the station of those who swim the seas!

And hearts we have cured of what was ailing them

By a taste of subtle teachings, and they flew.

And we have considered something secretly and it came to be,

And those we loved [as disciples] were brought to us as by choice.

And we heard in silence from the Unseen Presence:

“You are beloved to Me so be grateful!”[21]

            “The Prophet  also spoke to me in a dream and said, ‘Know, my boy, that Allah will honor you with fresh, sweet waters.’ I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, are these the waters of surrender, faith, and excellence?’ He answered, ‘They are,’I then asked, ‘And will I drink these waters by myself or will I drink them along with all those who follow me?’ He answered, ‘You will drink them, as will all those from my community who follow you. ‘What the Prophet  promised us, Allah has been brought to pass, for by Allah, we have drunk of those waters and all who are truly our companions will drink of them in the shortest time. And while the Shaykh of our Shaykh, Sîdî Muhammad al-‘Arabî would say, ‘By Allah, no one comes to me except one whom Allah has accepted,’I say – in mention of the bounty of my Lord – that by Allah, no one comes to me except one whom Allah loves.”


            The Shaykh did not limit his efforts to spreading knowledge, giving of himself and his possessions towards that end, and bearing difficulties and hardships. Rather, he participated in the struggle (jihâd) against French colonialism when he was in the Middle Atlas as a companion of Sîdî ‘Ali Amhawsh, may Allah be merciful to him. Sidî ‘Alî was a follower of the Darqâwî Order, which gathered fuqarâ’ and others under its leadership to confront in battle the French foe. The latter, however, were greater in number and better equipped, and what came to pass is a matter of history.[22] The Shaykh in fact, spoke in détail about what took place several times to a number of followers, but unfortunately no one ever took care to record these important events of his life.


He set out for the Sacred Precinct to fulfil the obligation of Pilgrimage after being appointed to head the Moroccan délégation of pilgrims by the Sultan, Mûlay Yûsuf, may Allah be merciful to him, who also made him responsible for distributing charity to the poor in the two Sacred Mosques and around them. This was one of the waftings of the spirit which happen during a lifetime,[23] and when he visited the noble resting place (rawda) of the Prophet [24]. he sung with the tongue of his state;

We are présent in the Meadow of the Messenger,

Seeking Allah’s  contentment and most beautiful  acceptance.

O you who are the best to turn tofor shelter,

We come in humility, lowliness, and awe,

That you might ask Allah to grant us His help and protection
in reaching what we hope for at the time of  reckoning,[25]

                  After having completed the rites, he travelled to Syria and met  with scholars there, including Tawfîq al-Ayyûbî and Badr al-Din al-Dimashqî. He also passed through Egypt and met a number of the learned such as Bakhît al-Muti‘î! and Shaykh al-Masâlûtî There took place with those scholars and our Shaykh a number of spiritual lessons and he was included in a number of assemblies of the learned who found him to be a vast océan of spiritual gifts, various types of learning, and direct knowledge. His state so dazzled them and their hearts were so taken by his refinement, his depth of learning, and the perfection of his sanctity, … that they wanted him to remain among them. But he asked their leave and joined a caravan back to his homeland. On his way back, he stopped in Algeria and there, too, met a large number of the learned, including Shaykh Muhammad bin Jalûl from the many scholars of Blida»[26] During this time, a great number of people entered the Tarîqa – scholars, notables, and others. When he entered Figuig[27] he was also welcomed by its learned, headed by Shaykh al-Islâm Sîdî Muhammad al-Qâdî. At the time, they were occupied with the study of Sahîh al-Bukhârî and they asked if he would participate in the lessons with them which he agreed to do. He stayed with them for nine months, during which time he gave lessons in the commentary on Bukhârî from beginning to end, as well as al-Murshid al-Mu‘în, and by the time he left, so many people had entered the tarîqa that there was not a single home in Figuig and its vicinity without a disciple.


             Upon his return, our Shaykh moved from Fes, after having lived there as a Shaykh teaching the way for twenty-six years, and took up residence in Meknes. The way this came about was when he visited Meknes for the first time with one of his disciples and they headed for the tomb of the saint, Sîdî Sa‘îd ben ‘Uthmân  with the intention that they might meet there Sîdî Mansûr, who was one of the saints and people of spiritual states. [With this purpose in mind], he took along a gift (which has been said to have been some piece of clothing[28]) and made resolved in his mind that [if he should meet this saint], he was going to ask him to give him a spiritual drink.[29] When he entered — and before he had said a word — the saint said to him, “Put the gift over there,” and then, immediately offering him a glass of tea, said, “This is the drink I give because of it.” When the Shaykh drank from this glass, his state changed completely and he parted from [Sîdî Mansûr] invoking aloud the Supreme Name,[30] He continued thus until he came to Hadim square where Sîdî Qâsim al-Hilâlî, who knew the Shaykh from the time he had been a companion of Sîdî Muhammad Lah and who had a close tie of brotherhood with him, saw him and took him by the hand saying, “Come with me, Sîdî” and took  him to his home. When the Shaykh had returned to himself, Sîdî Qâsim invited him to stay the night and then invited over one of the fuqarâ’ he knew so that he could meet the Shaykh, They began to talking about various matters, some concerning fiqh and others concerning sufism, and this faqîh became so amased by the Shaykh he finally asked him to take him by the hand for the sake of Allah Most High[31]. The Shaykh replied, “I cannot do that because you are already affiliated with another order. In fact, you are a muqaddim of it[32]  The fiqîh, in fact, was affiliated to one of the sufic orders[33] for the sake of blessing  (‘alâ wahji al-tabarruk), for it was no longer an order of spiritual method because it lacked a living shaykh who taught and trained disciples. Still, the fiqîh continued to ask the Shaykh’s permission to recite the [Habibiyya] litany and give him affiliation to his order. After much imploring, the Shaykh accepted him, gave him permission to recite the litany and spread the order, and appointed him to be the first muqaddim in Meknes. This latter fulfilled what he pledged, and through him a group of fuqarâ’ formed who gathered initially in the mosque of Derb al-Fatayân.

                 The Shaykh would go there from time to time but also asked the muqaddim to look for a large place for sale, for he had decided to move to Meknes. It was by the Divine decree that the muqaddim should hear about a house around which was a large garden for sale. He contacted the person in charge and let him know that the Shaykh was interested in purchasing it, and the whole process was made easy for him. The Shaykh then returned to Fes and informed the fuqara there that he had resolved to move to Meknes. Some of them, both those with no attachments to work or family (al-mutajarridîn), and others accompanied him to Meknes and set about building a Zâwiya and occupying it, they themselves and their brethren from Meknes, and when the work was completed, the Shaykh took up residence there. This was in 1356/1938 in his 66th year. It became the destination for invokers, the gathering place of gnostics, a shelter for seekers of this knowledge, and a light-house guiding souls through the night of desires, the many various groups, and misleading doctrines.


       The Shaykh had sold [the property] he had inherited from his father so that he could build that Zâwiya which came to be a home for a number of students of knowledge and fuqarâ’ without family or work (al-mutajarridîn) for whom the Shaykh also provided food. It also became a destination for any wayfarer, but he would never ask anyone who stayed there to join the tarîqa, or take the litany or any other invocation from him, or anything of the sort – only to keep the five Prayers in their times offered in assembly. It is recounted that once there was a student who was late for the pre-dawn Prayer (salât al-fajr) and when it had been completed, the Shaykh went to his room and knocked. When the student came to the door, he greeted him and said, “My son, I am ready to sell the shirt off my back for you to complete your studies, but I do not excuse being late for the Prayer, especially from a student of
religions knowledge.”

              The Zâwiya was a mosque where the five daily Prayers were offered, a school where various lessons in religions knowledge were given, and a house among the houses of Allah where His Name is invoked early and late[34], and it followed a particular schedule. This began some hours before dawn when the fuqarâ’ would rise for the superogatory night Prayer (al-tahajjud), There were followed by invocation and supplication until the time of the pre-dawn Prayer (al-fajr). Then one of them would make the Call to Prayer, and immediately after it, they would invoke the Supreme Name aloud in a particular way. Then the Shaykh would lead people in the Prayer and after having completed it, they would recite together the litany. Following that, the Shaykh would give his early morning lesson, and then each faqîr would turn to his own work — the student to his studies and the worker to his trade or profession. The Shaykh would also sit for an assembly of invocation and teaching every Friday even (i.e. Thursday night). When they had completed the invocation, he would ask a faqîr with a good voice to recite the Qur’ân, Then he would begin a commentary on the verses according to who was present and how open or ready they were, so that each person could take from it his own share of understanding. His delivery of these lessons was sweet, and you could hear in his commentary knowledge and mysteries you had never heard before, such that the learned considered him, “the seal of the Quranic commentators” (khâtim al-mufassirîn) of his time.


          It also became a regular function of the Zâwiya to host a yearly célébration of the Mawlid, the birthday of the Prophet For this, fuqarâ’ from ail over would travel to the Zâwiya, even from outside Morocco, and especially from Algeria, Spain, and England. All these délégations would join together to spend the night in this great commémoration, and some of the senior ones from among the muqaddimîn and others would take charge to insure that things were carried out in the best of conditions. The evening would begin with the recitation of the Noble Qur’ân, folowed by the chanting of qasîdas that would sing of the beauty of the occasion, then there would be the recitation of the story of the Prophet’s birth and then the fuqarâ’ would begin the ‘ammâra[35]. When it was over, someone would recite from the Qur’ân, and the Shaykh would present a lesson based on the verses that had been recited. The evening would close with [the Shaykh’s] offering a supplication, then the fuqarâ’ would come forward to greet him.


           Among the fundamentals of the tarîqa to which the Shaykh was inviting people was to hold fast to what the Revealed Law and the Sunna require, to have the best opinion of Allah and His servants always, to regard the whole of Allah’s création with respect, to gather for the sake of Allah, to love your brethren for the sake of Allah, to fulfil your promises, and to be abundant in the remembrance of Allah, especially in the last third of the night.
Concerning this latter, he used to say “Abundant invocation is the foundation on which is built the station of vigiliance, then of perception. When the heart of the servant is illuminated, and the sun of gnosis arises therein, he sees the entire Cosmos as a blessing from Allah to him: the countless blessings of existence itself and of sustenance. Then does he come to love Allah Most High by way of his nature, his mind, and the Revealed Law.”

           He would counsel the muqaddimîn in respect to the fuqarâ’ to treat them with goodness, make efforts to give them good advice, to guide them, to ask about their situations, and to be gentle and kind towards them. Inversely, he would counsel the fuqarâ’ to deal with the muqaddimîn with goodness by honoring and respecting hem and following what they asked of them. And to ail he would advise staying with the group.


       Our Shaykh found the city of Meknes to be devoid of any ravival of knowledge and its schools full of people who had no contact with knowledge or religion. So he decided to ask His Majesty, King Muhammad V (may Allah be merciful to him) for help in founding an institute of religious knowledge there. He offered the istikhâra Prayer[36] and then went to visit the King and said to him, “You have founded an institute of learning in Marrakesh, while Meknes is the capital of your grandfather[37]. so you should give it preference.” To this the King replied that (the institute in) Fes was close. The Shaykh said, “Even if it is close, if a student stays there until he has earned a diploma, when he returns to Meknes, what does he do? He can either try to get work as notary provided he can find someone to support him in doing that, or else he is forced to take whatever work cornes his way and the knowledge which he had left his home to acquire is wasted. On the other hand, if he found students with no work but to learn, he could begin by teaching them voluntarily and following that, he would find it easier to get paid work in something relating to the field of knowledge.”

[Hearing this] His Majesty the King agreed [to found such an institute in Meknes], and in this way, our Shaykh came to participate in reviving the teaching and learning of religious knowledge in his land, Then he began to teach in the Zaytuna Mosque in Meknes and started lessons in Quranic commentary which were themselves one of the signs of Allah, attended by a large number students, scholars, and others. Following that, he taught from al-Risâla[38] and explained for the generality of people al-Murshid al-Mu‘în, while to the fuqarâ’ he would give lessons from the Hikam. A great number of people benefitted from these lessons, such that you could find a. faqîr who was unable to read or write, and yet knowledgeable in matters of his religion. The Shaykh’s teaching was such that his words left a deep impression on the heart.


          He set out for the Sacred Precincts another time, and chanted with the tongue of his state:

We give thanks to God at every single moment
For having blessed us with this visit to the Messenger

And also a visit to all the Companions who rest
In the Baqi
and the children of Fatima.

And also a visit to all the wives and daughters
And the son of the deliverer on the Day of Reckoning.

And also a visit to the martyrs of Uhud
And also to the uncle of the Messenger.


          After his return from this blessed journey, he undertook a number of trips inside Morocco and into Algeria as well, especially for the sake of calling people to Allah Most High, He would take advantage of any occasion to remind people and awaken them from their heedlessness and neglect, and many came back to the way through him, many turned in repentence to their Lord because of how his preaching affected them, by the grâce of Allah Most High, and many whom Divine Providence encompassed set out in the Way and became affiliated with his Tarîqa.

         When he returned to Meknes, délégations began arriving there “from every narrow pass”[39] to be immersed in the outpouring of his knowledge and light, and none would leave except bearing good tidings and happiness. How many ailments of the heart did he cure, how many veils did he raise, and how many wayfarers received spiritual opening through him and did not part from him except as people of insight and gnosis!

           In addition, some of the important shaykhs of his time would corne to him, and he would speak with them, thank them for their work in guiding the community to the good, and also caution them against anything that could hurt the image of true sufism, which is the essence of the Station of Ihsân, He would also direct them away from any misguided groups and call them back to the pure Revealed Law and the Noble Sunna.

           He was unique to his time and place and Allah Most High singled him out to receive great gifts of teachings and gnosis – that is the grâce of Allah which He gives to whomsoever He will. His words bore witness to this when he said, “And if we wished to record all that grâces which Allah has given to us, we would need volumes!” and also, “1 was singled out to receive knowledge that is received only by the unique Muhammadan individual of whom there is only one in any given time. Even if there are many shaykhs living at that time, they are subordinate to him whether they know it or not.”

            Also, among Allah’s gifts to him is the fact that a large number of foreigners entered Islam through him, especially those from Spain and England, and he involved them in the spread of the religion in their lands, such that today, the Tarîqa has arrived at the four corners of the earth, and a number of Zâwiyas have been built abroad to teach knowledge and impart the principles of sufism and comportment. The number of Zâwiyas in Morocco also increased  especially in the Moroccan Sahara — and also in Algeria. In him, Allah Most High brought to pass what his teachers had intuited of him, may Allah be pleased with them all. Through him, the Tarîqa Darqâwiyya Shâdhiliyya received new energy and he was able to correct some of the misunderstandings of Sufism coming from its opponents by giving them a true example of Sunni sufism, this by way of his actions before his words, and also from what could be seen in his disciples. In a word, he was one of the breezes of the spirit[40] (nafahât) of his time and a blessed gift from Allah Most High to His servants.


                In the year 1391/1971 the Shaykh set out from his home in the Company of a few of the disciples to accomplish what he intended to be his third Pilgrimage. This time, however, his journey was from this world to the proximity of his Lord for on Monday, the 23rd day of Dhu’l-Qa’ada (January 10, 1972) at the âge of one hundred and one years, he passed away in the town of Blida in Algeria. There he was enterred in the Zâwiya he had inagurated one week before and then, twenty days later, following the instructions he had left in his written legacy, his body was transported back to Meknes to be buried permanently in the main Zâwiya, A great number of the général population, scholars, Fuqarâ’ , and personalities attended his funeral. This completed thirty-five years in Meknes and sixty-one years of being the teacher and guide of the Tarîqa, With the Shaykh’s passing. Islam lost an irreplaceable individual and the sufic path lost one of its spiritual axes.

Time swore an oath that it would bring us his like again,

But you broke your oath, O time, so make amends.

           The life of our Shaykh  was based on calling people to Allah Most High and striving for His sake. Among the writings he left behind was his blessed Diwan, which has been translated into a number of différent languages, re-printed several times, and distributed in many places. In addition to the Diwan, he wrote a commentary on the long litany known as the Hafîza, a commentary of the Salât al-Mashîshiyya, and a book in which he mentions something about each of those gnostics with whom he associated. He also left a number of letters. Unfortunately, none of those writings (apart from the Diwan) were ever printed, partly because some of them were lost, and partly because some of them fell into the possession of those who prized them as rare and valuable manuscripts.

                May Allah bless our Shaykh, Sîdî Muhammad ibn al-Habîb. May he be recompensed with the best of recompense, and may Allah place him in the highest of the Heavenly gardens among His righteous servants. Verily, Allah is the Hearer, the One Who Answers, the One Able to do what He wills. Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, The Shaykh  also left behind him men of the way who maintained their duty after his passing and carried on his work, most notably, Sîdî Fudûl al-Hawârî, may Allah have mercy upon him, as well as Sîdî Muhammad Belkurshî of the Tûrûk Zâwiya. Also among his successors is our présent Shaykh, our teacher and example, the renewer of the Tarîqa who has given new life to its form and manifested its lights and mysteries, Shaykh Mûlay Hâshim, may Allah sanctify his soul and let him drink from His Cup. He is now the one who oversees the matters of the Tarîqa Habîbiyya Darqâwiyya Shâdhiliyya, our living Shaykh and instructor, and the one though whom Allah Most High has given life to this blessed order, may He recompense him with goodness. He continues in the way of his Shaykh and ail the shaykhs of the Tarîqa, maintaining the observance of the Mawlid, conveying knowledge of the fundamentals of true Sufism based on Allah’s Book and the Sunna of his Noble Messenger and conveying the litany to any seeker who truly desires to be affiliated to this blessed Muhammadan order and drink from its teachings.







Ibn Aujjrûm al-Sanhâjî

(d. 723/1323)


Sîdî Muhammad


As-Sullam al-murawnaq fi ‘ilm al-mantiq

Abd al-Rahmân b.

al-Saghîr al-Akhdarî



Sîdî Muhammad


Sharh As-Sullam

Abu Abd allah Mohammed b. al-Hassan al- Bannânî (d.1194/1780)

Commentary on the above work.

Sîdî Muhammad


Ash-Shamâ·il al-Muhammadiyya

Abu Isâ Muhammad b. Sûra al-Tirmidhî (d.279/892)

A collection of hadith describing the Prophet  both in his physical appearance and his virtues

Sîdî Muhammad Al-Irârî

Al-Murchid al-mu‘în

Abd al-Wâhid b. Ashir (d.1040/1631)

’Ashari theology

 Malikî fiqh and sufism in 317 couplets.

Sîdî Ahmed Ibn al- Khayâti Az-Zakârî

Sahîh al-b Bukhârî

Imam Muhammad  Al- Bukhârî (d.256/870)

Foundational  Hadîth collection.

Sîdî Ahmed Ibn al- Khayâti Az-Zakârî

Kitab al-Hikam

Ahmed b.Muhammad ibn Ata illâh al-askandarî (d.709/1814)


Sîdî Ahmed Ibn al- Khayâti Az-Zakârî

Sharh al-Tuhfa

AtTâwdî Bensûda (d.709/1309)

Civil Law

Sîdî i Abou Bakrî Bennânî

Al-Jâm‘ fi âdâbi al-‘alim wa al-muta‘allim

Shiekh Khalîl


Sîdî Abou Bakrî Bennânî

Mukhtasar Al-Khalîl

Ibn Ishaq al-jûndi al-Khalil (d.776/1374)

Malikî Fiqh

Ahmed b. al-Jîlâlî al-Amghârî


Jamâl al-Dîn b. Mâlkî



Sîdî khalil al-Khâlidî

Charh al-Alfiyya

Abû Zayed Abd al-Rahmân b.Alî Salih al-Makûdû (d.807/1405)

Commentary on the  Alfiyya

Sîdî khâlil al-Khâlidî


Al-mûdah fî wujûhi al-qirâ·ât wa ‘ilaliha

Ibn Abi Maryem



Quranic  recitation

Sîdî khâlil al-Khâlidî

Jâmi‘  al-Jawâmi‘

Jalâl al-Dîn suyûti


A hadith collection

(currently published in 15 volumes) which comprises al-Jâmi al-saghîr et al-Jâmi al-Kabîr

Al-Sharif Muhammad b.Jâfar al- Kettânî


Ahmed b.Hanbal (d.241/855)

A hadith collection

Of 26 000 hadith made by the Imâm and founder of the Hanbali school of jurisprudence.

Al-Sharîf Muhammad b.Jâfar al-Kettânî

Talkhîs al-Miftâh

Saad al-Dîn Masud ibn Umar ibn Abd Allah al-Taftazani (d.792/1390)


Sîdî Muhammad guenûn

Al-Mûrchid al-mu‘în( commentary  on the  section on  theology )

Tayyib ben Kîrân

(d.1277 / 1860)



Al-Shifâ bi ta‘rîf  huqûq al-Mustaf â

Qâdî iyyâd

(d.476 / 1149)

Compilation of the sections on the life  of the  Prophet , and Quranic verses, and hadith  concerning him ,his qualities  and vertues ;  and what a faithful person needs to knew and do him in respect to him and the other Prophets

Sîdî hammâd al-Sinhâjî

Sharh al-Murchid al-mu‘în

Muhammad al-Mîyâra al fâsî (d.1072 / 1661)

Theology, Fiqh, soufism

Sîdî hammâd al-Sanhâjî


[1] This is has been transliterated from Moroccan Arabic, According to the French spelling in use in Morocco, his name is written “Moulay Hachem”  Mûlay (in classical Arabic, mûlâya) is a term of honor used in Morocco before the names of men of Sharifian descent; i,e, those related to the Prophet Muhammad .

[2] The Word al-nafha (pL nafahat), used. in several places in this biography,
cornes from a hadîth that states: “Verily, throughout the days of your life,
Allah has breezes of the spirit. So be open to them that perchance one of
them might reach you and you will never be sorrowful again.” Tabarânî,
al’Kabîr, 1586I, and with similar wording in Ibn Abî Shayba, al-Musannaf,
15058, Bayharî, Shu‘b al-lmân, 1131, and al-Hakîm al-Tirmidhî, Nawâdir al-
usûl, part 184.

[3] A village about 2,0 kilometers southwest of Marrakesh.

[4] A fiqîh, a teacher of fiqh; or Islamic jurisprudence, especially related to formai worship. This has been left in its transliterated form including the plural, fuqahâ.

[5] Allah suffices us and He is the most excellent Protector [3:173].

[6] The spot is commonly known as “Boujeloud.”

[7] These studies are summaried in Appendix i.

[8] The book referred to is Irshâd al-Sarî li sharh sahîh al-Bukhârî by Shihâb al-Dîn Abu al-‘Abbâs Ahmad b. Muhammad b, Abi Bakr, al-Qastalânî al-Qutaybi al-Shafi‘ (d, 923/1517 ce).

[9] Those related to the Prophet through the lineage of Mûlay Idrïs al-Akbar (d, 175/791), the founder of the city of Fes, whose shrine near Meknes in Zerhûn is one of the most venerated sites in Morocco. .

[10] Ijâza literally means “permission,” and in respect to learning, it means
permission to teach the knowledge in question. This word in modem Arabie
is used to mean “university diploma.

[11] sharh al-mukhtasar fî ‘ilm al-mantiq a widely studied work on logic by Muhammad b. Yusûf al-Sanûsî (d. 895/1490).

[12] A hizb in this context is one sixtieth of the Qur’ân, It is still common practice in Morocco for people to recite one hizb in a group, aloud, after
the dawn and sunset prayers, thus completing one thirtieth each day of the month, or a complété recitation of the Qur’àn, from beginning to end, each month.

[13] A mufti is a scholar who has completed the long and extensive studies necessary to be qualified to formulate a.fatwâ, or religious ruling, concerning a given issue that has arisen in a given time.

[14] Shaykh Muhammad Mâ’ al-Aynayn (d. 1328/1910) was an important
figure in the contemporary history of Saharan culture, He was the founder
of the desert city of Samara and also of the Tarîqa Mâaynayniyya, a branch
of the Qâdiriyya. In addition, he was the author of many works — both in
poetry and prose — on Islamic sciences including Sufism, and was one of the
Saharan leaders who led the revolt against French colonialism. He is buried
in Tiznit, where his family name is still highly respected.

[15] Ahzâb, the plural ofhizb, can mean a sixieth of the Quran or can be used as
a synonym for wird (litany). The différence seems to be that a litany contains
more formulae to be repeated a fixed number of times.

[16]   This book is a collection of letters of spiritual advice. It has never been printed.

[17] This is about 100 kilometers from Marrakesh. Their stay in Saraghna might have been on the way back to Marrakesh.

[18] Book of Wisdom, (translation by Victor Danner of Kitâb al-Hikam), saying 138. The numbers cited are those of the aphorisms themselves in that édition, published in the sériés, “The Classics of Western Spirituality ” Paulist Press, New York, 1978.

[19]  The Book of  Wisdom 184

[20]   Book of Wisdom, Munâjât 21

[21] From “The Robe of Nearness” (Diwan, 12)

[22]  Sîdï Alî Amhawsh (d. 1918) was a spiritual leader in the Middle Atlas. In 1908, as the French were making more and more inroads into Morocco, he declared a jihâd against them and rallied several tribes of Berbers. The battle was a complété rout for the Berbers, thousands were killed, and those left retreated into the mountains.

[23] See note 2.

[24] Rawda literally means “a meadow,” and is so named following the words
of the Prophet in a famous hadîth “Between my room and my pulpit is a
meadow from among the meadows of heaven ”rawdat min riyâdi-l-janna.”

[25] From the thirteenth poem in his collection, “In the Meadow of the Messenger,”

[26] A town about 45 km southwest of Algiers.

[27] An oasis town in southeast Morocco on the border between Morocco and Algeria.

[28] This was probably a silham, the Moroccan hooded cape.

[29] Shurba manawiyya, which means in this context to impart to him a blessing.

[30] The text reads al-Jalâla which could also mean the formula là ilâha illa-Llah.

[31]  Meaning “Please accept me into the order.”

[32]  A muqaddim (pl. muqaddimm) in général means someone invested with the powers to represent a higher authority. In respect to a Tariqa, he may transmit its litany and teachings.

[33] which is said to have been the Tarîqa ‘Isawiyya.

[34]  Here the author is paraphrasing [24:36] In houses where His Name is invoked. In them He is glorified early and late.

[35] ‘Ammara or hadra are the two Arabie terms most used in Morocco to
dénoté the form of invocation done by a circle of fuqarâ standing.

[36] Salat al-istikhâra, literally, “the Prayer seeking (Allah’s) choice,” consists in a Prayer of two bowings (rak‘a), followed by a supplication asking Allah to show the best course in a matter by making it easy. The basic wording of this supplication forms part of the litany, beginning Allâhumma, inniya astikhtruka bi‘ilmik… –

[37] The city of Meknes was built by the third ‘Alawî ruler of Morocco, Mûlay Ismâ‘îl                     (d. 2239/1727)

[38] A treatise on Malikî fiqh  by ‘Abd Allah b. Abî Zayd al-Qayrawânî (d.386/996).

[39]  The expression is Quranic [2,2:27]

[40]   See note 2 above.